PSICOLOGIA E FILOSOFIA
CATHERINE MALABOU - BIOGRAPHY
Catherine Malabou, Ph.D., is an important contemporary French philosopher. Catherine Malabou was born in 1959 and is a former student at the École normal supérieure (ENS) of Fontenay-Saint-Cloud in Lyon, France. ENS schools are regarded as some of the most prestigious French schools for humanities studies. Before that Catherine Malabou was educated in Paris at the renown Sorbonne University.
Catherine Malabou passed her agrégation in philosophy (French University high-level competitive examination for the recruitment of professors and often the gateway to Ph.D. study). Catherine Malabou wrote her dissertation on Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831) under the direction of the critical French philosopher Jacques Derrida (1930-2004), completing it on December 15 1994. The thesis was published in 1996 under the title “L’Avenir de Hegel, plasticité, temporalité, dialectique” and was prefaced by Derrida with a text entitled “Le temps des adieux: Heidegger (lu par) Hegel (lu par) Malabou” (“A time for farewells: Heidegger (read by) Hegel (read by) Malabou”). Catherine Malabou’s doctoral dissertation was eventually published in both Japanese and English (2005, “The Future of Hegel: Plasticity, Temporality and Dialectic”).recruitment of professors and often the gateway to Ph.D. study). Catherine Malabou wrote her dissertation on Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831) under the direction of the critical French philosopher Jacques Derrida (1930-2004), completing it on December 15 1994. The thesis was published in 1996 under the title “L’Avenir de Hegel, plasticité, temporalité, dialectique” and was prefaced by Derrida with a text entitled “Le temps des adieux: Heidegger (lu par) Hegel (lu par) Malabou” (“A time for farewells: Heidegger (read by) Hegel (read by) Malabou”). Catherine Malabou’s doctoral dissertation was eventually published in both Japanese and English (2005, “The Future of Hegel: Plasticity, Temporality and Dialectic”).
Catherine Malabou has taught at Nanterre University in Paris. She also taught in the United States where she was for two years at the University of California at Berkeley, and where she now regularly teaches in Buffalo as well as at the New School for Social Research in New York City. Today Catherine Malabou is a full-time professor at the Centre for Modern European Philosophy of Kingston in the United Kingdom. Catherine Malabou is also a Professor at the European Graduate School (EGS) where she teaches an intensive summer seminar.Social Research in New York City. Today Catherine Malabou is a full-time professor at the Centre for Modern European Philosophy of Kingston in the United Kingdom. Catherine Malabou is also a Professor at the European Graduate School (EGS) where she teaches an intensive summer seminar.
Catherine Malabou’s work is on the one hand in classic continental philosophy, and on the other neuroscience and neuro-psychoanalysis. She is a specialist of contemporary French and German philosophy. Catherine Malabou’s work has especially focused on the critical thought of Hegel and Martin Heidegger (1889-1976). Catherine Malabou’s contribution is with the concept of “plastic ontology”, which situates itself in the opening of the deconstruction of Jacques Derrida. Catherine Malabou also manages a philosophy book series for the French publisher “Éditions Léo Scheer”.
1999 marked the publication of the co-authored “Voyager avec Jacques Derrida - La Contre-allée”, published in English in 2004 not long before the death of Derrida himself, and under the title “Counterpath”. Here Malabou and Derrida explore the various meanings of a “journey”, pointing out that they have all always presupposed as its condition of possibility an unwavering solidarity, if not even a synonymy between two terms: to derive and to arrive. Indeed the logic of such solidarity presupposes that everything that happens drifts. This axiom controls the essential relationship between journey on the one hand and destination, event and truth, on the other.
In 2004 Catherine Malabou wrote “Que faire de notre cerveau?”, published in English in 2008 as “What Should We Do with Our Brain?”. She begins her inquiry by pointing out that the brain has always been the organ most subjected to political metaphors. She suggests that this is the case probably because it is the biological structure that is most seen as being in charge. Yet recent findings concerning it, particularly those demonstrating its plasticity, have fundamentally challenged its function of leader. The question Catherine Malabou explores here has to do with the brain having stopped being a metaphor of a rigid and centralized power. She wonders whether it necessarily follows that the present description that we actually make today of the brain is devoid of ulterior political motives. Catherine Malabou points out that it is indeed troubling that the same words, such as “flexibility”, are today commonly used in economic life. This leads her to ask whether the very description of our brain today is not in fact the image of the capitalist world in which we live? She continues her line of questioning by asking if that description does not also describe another form of power that is not centralized but which still remains in charge in a sort of command post where absolute adaptability and flexibility is demanded with the result of rejecting people without mobility, and deemed too rigid. Catherine Malabou remarks that we should thus not be fooled by how we speak of our brain.
In 2005 Catherine Malabou published “La Plasticité au soir de l’écriture : Dialectique, destruction, déconstruction” (published in English in 2009 as “Plasticity at the Dusk of Writing: Dialectic, Destruction, Deconstruction”). The book is a kind of manifesto that is particularly helpful in trying to understand one of the guiding movements of French philosophy in the past fifty years. In this intellectual autobiography, Catherine Malabou goes over the legacy of deconstruction, starting with the fundamental ground of Derrida’s thought: writing. Through having this thought confront those of Hegel and Heidegger, she shows how the concept of plasticity is today tending to replace the graph and the trace. The dialogue between the graphic and the plastic that she facilitates ends up extending to different disciplines and uncovers, from anthropology to neurobiology, crucial theoretical issues.
Catherine Malabou has expanded her research to modern philosophy in the United States where she now spends several months a year. Catherine Malabou has also worked on the theme of feminism and politics, with for example one of her more recent works entitled “Changer de différence” (2009) and published in English in 2011 as “Changing differences”. In this book she first submits philosophical analysis to the rigor of proof. She wants to make sure we do not misunderstand and forget what philosophy tends to want to drop or reduce as effects, or as its outside, or even its below. Catherine Malabou argues and shows that philosophy can no longer be a neutral and transparent arbitration. She wants to intervene in a practical and critical work to in fact do philosophical work in which so-called effects refuse to be dominated as second-class products.
More recently, Catherine Malabou published with the eminent American critical thinker Judith Butler (1956-) a book in French entitled “Sois mon corps” (2010), not yet published in English but which can translate as “Be My Body”. The two thinkers give us a contemporary reading of domination and servitude in Hegel. They ask about who has not ever dreamed or feared, desired or dreaded to delegate one’s body? That is to say, asking or ordering someone else: be my body, carry it in my place, feed it, cultivate it, shape it. According to Judith Butler and Catherine Malabou such request and order are those which the master gives the slave in Hegel’s “The Phenomenology of Spirit” (1807). In this way, the dialectic of domination and servitude must be understood as a scene of delegation and denial of the body. But they also want to ask two opposite and yet inextricable questions: do we ever manage to completely detach oneself from one’s body? And on the contrary, are we ever completely attached to it? From Hegel to Michel Foucault (1926-1984), Jacques Derrida and Alexandre Kojève (1902-1968), these issues are tackled in all their modalities.
LAVOJ ZIZEK - BIOGRAPHY
Slavoj Žižek, Ph.D., is a senior researcher at the Institute of Sociology, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia, and a visiting professor at a number of American Universities (Columbia, Princeton, New School for Social Research, New York University, University of Michigan). Slavoj Žižek recieved his Ph.D. in Philosophy in Ljubljana studying Psychoanalysis. He also studied at the University of Paris. Slavoj Žižek is a cultural critic and philosopher who is internationally known for his innovative interpretations of Jacques Lacan. Slavoj Žižek has been called the ‘Elvis Presley’ of philosophy as well as an 'academic rock star'. He is author of The Indivisible Remainder; The Sublime Object of Ideology; The Metastases of Enjoyment;Looking Awry: Jacques Lacan through Popular Culture; The Plague of Fantasies; and The Ticklish Subject. Slavoj Žižek's work can be characterized as vibrant, full of humor, blatant disregard for distinctions between high and low forms of culture and his work and presence has gathered him critical acclaim as a superstar in the world of contemporary theory.
Slavoj Žižek was born into a family of average wealth, his father Jože Žižek grew up in eastern Slovenia and worked in economics. Slavoj Žižek's mother Vesna was an accountant. It was in Ljubljana, the capital of modern day Slovenia, that Vesna gave birth to Slavoj on March 21, 1949. Both of Slavoj Žižek's parents were atheists. Most of young Slavoj's childhood took place in Portorož, a small seaside community. Slavoj Žižek states in an interview with Helen Brown of the Telegraph, "at 15, I wanted to be a movie director. But I saw some really good European films and I accepted that I couldn’t do that. Then, at 17, I decided to become a philosopher." When Slavoj Žižek became a teenager the family returned to Ljubljana where he attended Bežigrad High School. Slavoj Žižek when to the University of Ljubljana in 1967 to study sociology and philosophy, receiving a Doctorate in the Arts in Philosophy. During this period in what was then Yugoslavia was a tumultuous political environment. It was at this time that the Communist regime began a series of liberalization policies. Later Slavoj Žižek went on to study psychoanalysis at the University of Paris VIII with François Regnault and Jacques-Alain Miller (Jacques Lacan’s son-in-law).
The Marxist Slovenian philosopher Božidar Debenjak was an early influence on Slavoj Žižek. It was from Debenjak that Slavoj began to turn to German idealism and Slavoj Žižek began to be influenced by the Frankfurt School. It was in Božidar Debenjak's course at the University of Ljubljana that Slavoj Žižek read Karl Marx'sDas Kapital through the lens of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's Phenomenology of the Mind. The perspective formed through this interrogation of Karl Marx and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel has heavily influenced Slavoj Žižek's contemporary works. Slavoj Žižek has associated with Tine Hribar and Ivo Urbančič, both Heideggerian philosophers.
Slavoj Žižek was hired at the University of Ljubljana in 1971 where he worked as an assistant researcher. His master's thesis was controversial due to the Marxist tendency of the reformist Slovenian regime in 1973 and therefore he lost his position at the university. After this period he worked for the Yugoslav army in Karlovac. Slavoj Žižek later began to work as a clerk for the Slovenian Marxist Center where he became acquainted with Mladen Dolar and Rastko Močnik. Both of these scholars were focused on the works of Jacques Lacan. Slavoj Žižek began working for the Institute of Sociology for the University of Ljubljana in 1979. Shortly after in the 1980's he began to publish books which examined Heglian and Marxist theories from the point of view of Lacanian psychoanalytic theory. Slavoj Žižek has two sons from two different marriages.
Slavoj Žižek wrote the introduction to John Lee Carre and G.K. Chesterston's Slovenian translated novels. Slavoj Žižek edited a number of translations of Louis Althusser, Jacques Lacan and Sigmund Freud to Slovenian. It was not until the late 1980s when Slavoj Žižek came under the scrutiny of public attention. During this period he was a columnist from his work for Maldina, a magazine aimed at youth which criticized the Titoist regime. The magazine gained notoriety for its stance against certain aspects of the times Yugoslavian politics, in particular the increasing militarization policies aimed towards society. Up until October of 1988 Slavoj Žižek was an active member of the Communist Party of Slovenia. He quit during the protest against the JBZ-trial. He was not alone in this protest, he quit along with thirty two other public intellectuals with origins in Slovenia. Slavoj Žižek was involved with the Committee for the Defense of Human Rights a social movement fighting for democracy in Slovenia. In 1990 the first free elections were held in Slovenia. At this time Slavoj Žižek ran for President aligned with the Liberal Democratic Party.
Slavoj Žižek became widely recognized as an important theorist of contemporary times with the publication of The Sublime Object of Ideology, his first book to be written in English, in 1989. Since this time Slavoj Žižek has taken the contemporary philosophical world by storm, never afraid of confrontation he is a dangerous theorist. Slavoj Žižek's work cannot be categorized easily. He calls for a return to the the Cartesian subject. Slavoj Žižek also calls for a return to The German Ideology, in particular the works of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Immanuel Kant and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling. Slavoj Žižek's work draws on the works of Jacques Lacan, moving his theory towards modern political and philosophical issues, finding the potential for liberatory politics within his work. But in all his turns to these thinkers and strands of thought, he hopes to call forth new potentials in thinking and self-reflexivity. Slavoj Žižek also calls for a return to the spirit of the revolutionary potential of Lenin and Karl Marx.
Slavoj Žižek is an atheist and often his theories go against analytical philosophical currents. He tends to be politically incorrect and has therefore caused quite a disruption within intellectual circles. It is his unique brand of political and philosophical bravery that has created a name for himself as the foremost thinker of our times. Slavoj Žižek puts forth that for one to understand today’s politics we need a different notion of ideology.
Slavoj Žižek was a visiting professor at the Department of Psychoanalysis, Université Paris-VIII in 1982–83 and 1985–86, at the Centre for the Study of Psychoanalysis and Art, SUNY Buffalo, 1991–92, at the Department of Comparative Literature, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 1992, at the Tulane University, New Orleans, 1993, at the Cardozo Law School, New York, 1994, at the Columbia University, New York, 1995, at the Princeton University (1996), at the New School for Social Research, New York, 1997, at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1998, and at the Georgetown University, Washington, 1999. He is a returning faculty member of the European Graduate School. In the last 20 years Žižek has participated in over 350 international philosophical, psychoanalytical and cultural-criticism symposiums in the USA, France, United Kingdom, Ireland, Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, Austria, Australia, Switzerland, Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Spain, Brasil, Mexico, Israel, Romania, Hungary and Japan. He is the founder and president of the Society for Theoretical Psychoanalysis, Ljubljana.
Slavoj Žižek's published books include: Začeti od začetka, Ljubljana: Cankarjeva založba (2011), Hegel and the Infinite: Religion, Politics, and Dialectic (2011), Paul's New Moment: Continental Philosophy and the Future of Christian Theology (2010),The Idea of Communism (2010), Living in the End Times (2010), Philosophy in the Present Polity (with Alain Badiou, 2010), Badiou & Žižek: Hvalnica Ljubezni (Love and Terror) (2010), Društvo za teoretsko psihoanalizo (2010), Mythology, Madness and Laughter: Subjectivity in German Idealism (2009), First As Tragedy, Then As Farce (2009), In Search of Wagner (2009), Monstrosity of Christ: Paradox or Dialectic? (2009), Violence: Big Ideas/Small Books (2008), In Defense of Lost Causes (2008), En defensa de la intolerancia (2007), On Practice and Contradiction(2007), Terrorism and Communism (2007), Virtue and Terror (2007), How to Read Lacan (2006), The Parallax View (2006), Lacan: The Silent Partners (2006),Neighbors and Other Monsters (in The Neighbor: Three Inquiries in Political Theology) (2006), The Universal Exception (2006), Interrogating the Real (2005),Kako biti nihče (2005), Iraq: The Borrowed Kettle (2004), Paralaksa: za politični suspenz etičnega (2004), The Puppet and the Dwarf: The Perverse Core of Christianity (2003), Organs Without Bodies (2003), Kuga Fantazem (2003),Revolution at the Gates: Žižek on Lenin, the 1917 Writings (2002), Welcome to the Desert of the Real (2002), Repeating Lenin (2001), Opera's Second Death (2001),On Belief (2001), The Fright of Real Tears (2001), Did Somebody Say Totalitarianism? (2001), Strah pred pravimi solzami: Krzysztof Kieslowski in šiv(2001), Krhki absolut: Enajst tez o krščanstvu in marksizmu danes (2000), The Fragile Absolute: Or, Why is the Christian Legacy Worth Fighting For? (2000), The Art of the Ridiculous Sublime: On David Lynch's Lost Highway (2000), Contingency, Hegemony, Universality (2000), The Ticklish Subject (1999), Alain Badiou, Sveti Pavel: Utemeljitev Univerzalnosti (1998), The Plague of Fantasies (1997), The Abyss of Freedom (1997), Argument za strpnost (1997), The Indivisible Remainder: Essays on Schelling and Related Matters (1997), Slovenska smer (1996), The Metastases of Enjoyment (1994), Problemi: Eseji 4-5 (1994), Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Lacan... But Were Afraid to Ask Hitchcock (1993),Tarrying With the Negative (1993), Filozofija skoz psihoanalizo VII (1993), Enjoy Your Symptom! (1992), Looking Awry (1991), For They Know Not What They Do(1991), Hitchcock II. (1991), Beyond Discourse Analysis (a part in Ernesto Laclau's New Reflections on the Revolution of Our Time) (1990), Beseda, dejanje svoboda: Filozofija skoz psihoanalizo V (1990), The Sublime Object of Ideology (1989), Druga smrt Josipa Broza Tita (1989), Pogled s strani (1988), Jezik, ideologija, Slovenci(1987), Hegel in objekt (1985), Problemi teorije fetišizma: Filozofija skoz psihoanalizo II (1985), Filozofija skozi psihoanalizo (1984), Birokratija i uživanje (1984), Zgodovina in nezavedno (1982), Gospostvo, Vzgoja, Analiza: Zbornik tekstov Lacanove šole psihoanalize (editor, translator) (1982), Hegel in označevalec (1980), Znak, označitelj, pismo (1976) and Bolečina razlike (1972).
Alain Badiou, Ph.D. , nascido em Rabat, Marrocos, em 1937, detém o Presidente Rene Descartes nas EGS Escola Europeia de Pós-Graduação. Alain Badiou era um estudante na École Normale Supérieure em 1950. Ele lecionou na Universidade de Paris VIII (Vincennes-Saint Denis) de 1969 até 1999, quando retornou a ENS, como o presidente do departamento de filosofia.